Saturday, May 23, 2020
Social Learning Theory is a perspective from psychology that was developed to understand the importance of observations and direct instructions that influence gender identity. Professor Susan Golombok at the University of Cambridge and psychology professor Robyn Fivush at Emory College of Art and Science defined Social Learning Theory as a way to study behaviors through differential reinforcement and modeling (Golombok and Fivush, 76). For decades, children were taught to follow specific standards when it comes to gender identity. Girls were encouraged to play with dolls while boys were reinforced to play with cars. Also, children observe adults such as their parents to comprehend and imitate behaviors; consequently, this creates gender stereotypes through differential reinforcement and modeling. Throughout this paper, readers will understand the influence of Social Learning Theory on behaviors and how differential reinforcement and modeling induce gender stereotype. At a young age, I (Lois Kim) would not have noticed that I observed and imitated my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s feminine practices that she displayed. However, there was once a time when I secretly took my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s makeup and tried to put it on myself, and my younger brother imitated what I was doing. I tried to imitate my mother by putting on makeup to look Ã¢â¬Å"pretty, while my brother was imitating me out of curiosity as to what I was doing. According to Golombok and Fivush (1994), children do not characteristically select theShow MoreRelatedDeviant Behavior / The Social Learning Theory1751 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages 2014 Social Behavior Final Paper Ã¢â¬â SOC 3380 Sherri Nichols DEVIANT BEHAVIOR, THE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY, AND SOCIAL REACTION Ã¢â¬Æ' A person would be considered to be acting in a deviant manner within a social setting if they are violating the established social Ã¢â¬Å"normÃ¢â¬ within that particular culture. What causes a human being to act in certain ways is a disputed topic among researchers. There are three types of researchers that have tried to answer this question. ThereRead MoreThe Social Learning Theory Of Delinquent Behavior Essay1853 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmembership involved. The theory I have chosen to tie in with my review of the articles I found is the social learning theory of Edwin Sutherland known as differential association theory. According to Britannica online, SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s differential association theory of delinquent behavior is learned from other persons who are also engaged in delinquent behaviors. Sutherland believes that a person becomes delinquent because of an access amount of exposure to the definitions of criminal behavior and the violationRead MoreThe Social Learning Theor y ( Bobo Doll ) New Information And Behavior1786 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesTheories are set of rules set as a guideline for social workers, they attempt to explain why humans behave the way they do, how they relate to one another and social issues surrounding humans in their daily lives. They are based on facts, use of observation skills looking at signs of needs or danger and description of situations. It clearly explains the event and predicts the outcome of the situation and that helps in social work intervention to influence positive change. BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s social learningRead MoreSocial Learning Theory839 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthis assignment, I will be studying social learning theory. Social learning theory was first proposed by Albert Bandura. It is a theory that emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others, (Social Learning Theory, n.d.). There are three main hypotheses of social learning theory. First, the theory assumes that people can learn by observing others (Cherry, n.d.). Second, social learning theory builds on behaviorism by suggesting thatRead MoreThe Social Control Theory And Social Learning Theory1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesperception has come from, many have created theories about the topic while others have combined theories to get a better insight. The reason behind this is to create a better understanding as to why people commit crimes. With all the theories that seem to be possible, two of them seem to be the most popular: social cont rol theory and social learning theory. Although they have their similarities and differences, the social control theory and social learning theory bring a better understanding to the worldRead MoreWhy Do Some People Pay Attention?1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessome people pay attention to certain models and not others? Why do people imitate the same behavior differently? These are the questions Bandura (1977) attempted to answer in identifying some of the variables that influence the modeling process. Characteristics of the model, for example, determine to some extent whether or not they will be imitated. Models who are more similar to the person observing the behavior are more likely to be imitated, thus girls tend to imitate others of their same gender,Read MoreExamining Theory Paper1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Examining Theory Paper CriminologyÃ¢â¬âCJA/314 December 20, 2012 Sandra Janics Introduction There are many theories in the field of criminology that seek to explain the reasons behind why people commit crimes. Social process theory is one such theory and asserts that criminal behavior is learned through interactions with others (Schmalleger, 2012). There are four types of social process theories including: social learning theory, social control theory, labeling theory, and dramaturgical perspectiveRead MoreThe Social Of Social Cognitive Theory1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Social Cognitive Theory is perhaps the most comprehensive and complex learning theories in the field of psychology. The theory attempts to explain how our social environment has a great influence on our behaviors and actions. Albert Bandura is the most notable psychologist of the Social Cognitive Theory. He has conducted intense research and experiments for over 50 years and continually strives to improve the strengths and correct the limitations of the theory. The Social Cognitive Theory is appliedRea d MoreSocial Learning Theory And Social Theory1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesare many theories in the field of criminology that seek to explain the reasons behind why people commit crimes. Social process theory is one such theory and asserts that criminal behavior is learned through interactions with others (Schmalleger, 2012). There are four types of social process theories including: social learning theory, social control theory, labeling theory, and dramaturgical perspective. This paper will explore two of the theories including social learning theory and social controlRead MoreThe Behavioral Theory Of Classical Conditioning And The Cognitive Theory1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontrast the behavioral theory of classical conditioning and the cognitive theory of cocial cognitive. Both are theories that have been well investigated to produce an outcome of effective learning. This study will examine the conditions of learning from both theories and ague their differences as well as their s imilarities. Evidence will be present on both sides to support this thesis claims on conditions, similarities and differences. This study will focus on the two theories assumptions, measurements
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Whether by land or by sea, eighteenth century colonial travel was arduous, expensive, and many times dangerous. Because of this, few people traveled very far from their homes. Transportation has changed dramatically since the late 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s. It was during this time that Colonial America was budding as a new country. This was before airplanes, which appeared in the very early stages of the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. Cars showed up about the same time, so rewind about 200 plus years and weÃ¢â¬â¢re back in colonial America. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t civilized like it is today. The dirt roads were bumpy, grimy, and when the rains came, they were mud baths. So how did people during this time get around? Often, they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Not many people could afford the cost of travel back then. Daily American Colonial Life was extremely harsh for the first settlers and colonists. They were faced with a new country, unknown territory and no friends, relatives or neighbors to help them Ã¢â¬Å"In those days, it w as fairly expensive to travel. Because of this, generally only government officials, merchants, and planters took the risk (Constitution Facts).Ã¢â¬ Women were supposed to stay home and look after the children while the husband went off to do business. America was still a budding country, so there were not as many cities as there are now and they were more spread out. If the man wanted to travel, it would require several hours, or even several days to ride on horseback. Often the husband wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t return for a couple of days, and when heShow MoreRelatedThe Evolution Of The Education1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEducation plays the most crucial role in the quality of life any person will ever live. Before a set structure, or a standard of education was made, education was not considered a necessity. Once the importance of education was established and more people began attending school, the race to a higher education became more intense than ever. People even began saving up to send their children away from home for their best chance at succeeding in life with a good education (Public Schools in the Great DepressionRead MoreThe American Revolution Revolutionary Revolution1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe American Revolution was fought over liberty and freedom. It was a movement marked by action which upset the political order of the eighteenth century. However, if all the American Revolution achieved was breaking the yoke of empirical control its lasting importance would have been lost amongst the scores of colonial revolutions that came before it, such as the DutchÃ¢â¬â¢s break from the Spanish or the Corsicans overthrow of the Genoese. Influenced by the period of enlightenment, the American RevolutionRead MoreThe Slavery Of The Colonial North Americas1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespeople in the colonial North Americas. This chapter was very interesting but there were three main parts in the chapter that really caught my attention and that was the slave life in early America, the Origins of African American culture, and black women in colonial America. Each part that IÃ¢â¬â¢m about to break down sheds light on what happened during that time. During the slave life in early American there were little to show, evidence wise because the African Americans, American Indian and someRead MoreThe Age of Reason and Revolution Essay810 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReason and Revolution Many individuals that lived in the period of time known as the Age of Reason, discovered many new inventions and advancements to improve the quality of life. Some of these advantages brought fourth new ideas to extraordinary people who forever changed the way we look at life. Although many people found these discoveries to bring great revival to mankind, others rejected these new improvements and felt as if they were defying god. These years wereRead More Puerto Rican Identity and Spanish Colonial Rule Essay1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPuerto Rican Identity and Spanish Colonial Rule The debate on Puerto Rican Identity is a hot bed of controversy, especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society where American colonialism dominates most of the islandÃ¢â¬â¢s governmental and economic policies. The country wrestles with the strong influence of its present day colonizers, while it adamantly tries to retain aspects of the legacy of Spanish colonialism. Despite AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s presence, Puerto Ricans maintain what is arguably their own cultural identity whichRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"When People In The United States Think Of ChildrenS Rights1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"When people in the United States think of children s rights they usually think of children in third world countries who are victims of abusive child labor practices or insurmountable povertyÃ¢â¬ (Wilson 1). However, in reality it is not just in third world countries, it is also in the United States. From the American colonial period till the mid nineteenth century, child labor has been an important issue. It has t aken many years to come to an agreement of the definition of child labor. One way toRead MoreThe Journal Of Negro History Essay1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages What I am analyzing about this research paper, I am going to talk about the African American Culture and the story am going to bring up is called Everyday use and an Literary Criticism called Ã¢â¬Å"The Journal Of Negro HistoryÃ¢â¬ . First am going to talk about Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ which it talks about a character girl name Dee saying she is reclaiming her heritage but she really actually rejecting it more violently than ever and by doing that she doesn t see how important her family culture is. On theRead MoreNative Americans During European Settlements With Massive Immigration1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessuch as tobacco produced in the southern colonies, specifically Maryland and Virginia, contributed to the development of commerce between the worlds connected by the Atlantic. This led to the increase in demand for la bor in the Americas. The Native Americans initially provided the labor for the production of goods in the southern colonies. But, with constant evolving trade and the introduction of new products, the labor demand remained unmet. In order to fulfill the labor requirement, the migrants fromRead More Through the careful reading of American Colonies Essay1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThrough the careful reading of American Colonies, written by Alan Taylor, it is clear that there are vast differences as well as a number of similarities between the European competitors as they began to colonize the Americas but diversity can also be found within the colonies they would create. American Colonies shows a close relationship between climate, the state of the economy, and the development of slavery. The varying climate within the Americas proved to have an enormous impact on the sourceRead MoreNative American And The Revolutionary War Essay1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmillion Native Americans in N orth America in the year 1492 (Hoxie and Iverson, 1997). As early as the Revolutionary War in 1775, European settlers started taking note of the Native Americans. Unfortunately, the Native American population plunged significantly in the first decades after their first contact with Europeans. Native Americans were now unprotected and exposed to deadly diseases like smallpox, influenza, and measles which did not previously exist in their society (North American Natives, 2016)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
David Rivers MKT/421 Tracy Foote Week Three Discussion Questions Ã¢â¬ ¢Select a product with which you are familiar. What stage is this product at in the product life cycle? Provide rationale for your answer. The chose Apples IPhone and currently it is the Maturity phase of the product life cycle. We will write a custom essay sample on Tracy Foote Week Three Discussion Questions or any similar topic only for you Order Now The IPhone is very popular and is often copied or remanufactured to look like and perform the same as the original. Apple is creating new features, products, and apps to allow users to do a lot more than ever before. Based on your knowledge of the product life cycle, what types of changes will occur to this product as it continues through the product life cycle? Apple is going to face tough competition as it tries to hold on to market share and maintain revenue. How will this affect marketing of the product? Once the IPhone it the market it took off like a rocket. The market wanted to get it in the action and flooded the market with so-called smartphones. It is my opinion that Apple will have to reduce the price of the phone and better serve the its customers with continued upgrades and apps. Ã¢â¬ ¢Select a product or service. Then, select three different organizations that provide your selected product or service and compare the prices associated with it. What is the difference between the prices among the different organizations? What is the rationale for this difference? The IPhone, the Verizon HTC phone, and the Windows phone are in the ballpark as far as price goes, the difference will be in the plans selected to run each phone. Each of the competitors is trying to build a better mousetrap and price out the competition. However, technology is not cheap and the cost reduction will have to occur somewhere in the manufacturing process for one company to surpass the rest. How to cite Tracy Foote Week Three Discussion Questions, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Bike Service at Door Project System. Answer: The project would be one a kind of services in Australia. With this service, people can get their bike servicing at their doorstep. This project or service would be known as Bike Service at Door. There would be a mobile application for this project and people can book the appointment with a click. The executive of Bike Service at Door would come and pick the bike at the appointed time (Krishan, 2012). The executive would get the bike services from the required service center. Once the servicing is done, the executive would bring the bike back to the owner. Initially, this project or this service would be launched in Sydney. The vision of the project is to make life easy and convenient for bike owners who are busy in their life and who does not have time to give bike for servicing. With this project, the bike owners can get the bike serviced at their doorsteps. The outcome is that the bike owners would not need to go to the service center to get their bike serviced (Suarez, 2014). To develop a mobile application and web portal for people to book the appointment with a click. The executive of Bike Service at Door would come and pick the bike at the appointed time. The executive would get the bike services from the required service center. Once the servicing is done, the executive would bring the bike back to the owner Objectives, Outputs and Targets The objective is to mobile application and web portal people to book the appointment with a single click. The output or the target state would be a website and a mobile application that the bike owners can use to book the service appointment for their bikes (Turner, 2014). It is targeted, the bike owners in Sydney would use this service as it would be ease and convenient for them to get the bike services without them going to the service station. The two key success criteria for this project can be discussed as: The mobile application and website would be developed that would be used by the bike owners to book the appointment (Kumar, 2012) There are enough executives that would go to the doorstep of people to collect the bike, deliver to respective service stations, and return the bike back to bike owners The people are ready to use this service and people would trust the executives to give the bike for servicing. There would not be any technological challenges to develop the website and mobile applications The service centers would accept the bike from the service executives who are not the owners of the bike. References Corona-Suarez, G. A., AbouRizk, S. M., Karapetrovic, S. (2014). Simulation-Based Fuzzy Logic Approach to Assessing the Effect of Project Quality Management on Construction Performance.Journal of Quality and Reliability Engineering,2014. Kim, D. Y., Kumar, V., Kumar, U. (2012). Relationship between quality management practices and innovation.Journal of Operations Management,30(4), 295-315. Turner, J. R. (2014). The handbook of project-based management (Vol. 92). McGraw-hill. Antony, J., Krishan, N., Cullen, D., Kumar, M. (2012). Lean Six Sigma for higher education institutions (HEIs) Challenges, barriers, success factors, tools/techniques. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 61(8), 940-948.
Tuesday, March 24, 2020
Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl Paper The question I have selected for my essay is number one and I will be discussing the presentation of gender and power explored in the short story, Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl. Also in my essay I will be explaining the roles played by the two main characters in the story Mary and Patrick Maloney. Mary Maloney is the main character in the story Lamb to the Slaughter. She is represented as a stereotypical housewife who adores her husband, Patrick Maloney, and is willing to go to any length to please him. At the start of the text Mary seems to be a eak woman and the weaker person in her marriage. She lets her husband push her around and she doesnt even realise hes doing it, because she only ever wants to make happy. Patrick Maloney is the husband of Mary Maloney and the dominant one in their relationship. In the text he is represented as a stereotypical ungrateful, grumpy husband. Also in the text the Maloneys would be classified as an upper class family but even though this is so, Patrick Maloney still works full time as a Senior Policeman. We will write a custom essay sample on Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Another thing we notice about Mr. Maloney is he fact he seems quite bored of the fact he is waited on hand and foot by his wife. Power plays a major part in the story Lamb to the Slaughter. And in this story the power seems to reverse from one character to the other, as it starts of with all the power in the hands of Patrick Maloney. Him being the Senior Police officer at work tells us that he must hold quite a lot of power of his work mates below him. But obviously the person he holds the most power over in the text is his wife, Mary Maloney; his hard working housewife who we find out is 6 months pregnant. She is constantly fussing over Patrick wether it is cooking his dinner or getting his slippers. Another thing we notice is that Mr. Maloney is always the person who makes the decisions in their relationship. Wether it has very little or very much importance. For example what they were both going to have for dinner, it was always whatever Mr. Maloney felt like. However all of this power is reversed in the text when Mary comes back from getting the leg of lamb for her and her husbands dinner. She spots Patrick standing in the corner of the oom and he says, For gods sake! Dont make supper for me, Im going out. And that seems to set her off so she walks over and shows physical power as she hits her husband hard over the head with the leg of lamb, and the second he is dead a whole new power is left with her, it is the power Mr. Maloney had once held over her. Mary also seems to have power over the policeman, detectives and doctors who came to investigate the death of Mr. Maloney. They seem very sympathetic towards her and believe every word Mrs. Maloney says about the death of her usband. After studying this short story it would be fair to say that Mr/Mrs Maloney do not have stereotypical or specific gender and power roles as they seem change their characters during the text. Mr. Maloney is explained by Mary at the start of the story as a loving husband and turned out to be ungrateful and unloving. And Mrs. Maloney starts off being a shy, warm, quite woman and ends up slaughtering her husband with a leg of lamb. To conclude my essay however, at different times in the text both characters hold more power then the other.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Regionalism in Canada and Its Effects Essays Regionalism in Canada and Its Effects Paper Regionalism in Canada and Its Effects Paper Regionalism and Its Effects on the Canadian State Since the beginning of Canadian history, regionalism has had a prominent effect on the country`s political system. The concept of regionalism can be defined as a political ideology grounded on a shared sense of place or attachment and is discussed in terms of Canadian society, culture, economy and politics. 1. From the days of confederation, Canada has developed into regional cleavages and identities based on various geographical characteristics, traditional lifestyles and economic interests. Two of Canada`s greatest regionally distinct political cultures are known as Western alienation and Quebec nationalism. 2. Historically, the lack of regional awareness and accommodation within CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s central government has given rise to a great deal of regional discontent. Much of this discontent comes from the uneven distribution of economic activity amongst Canada`s provinces. Also, federal policies made in favour of central Canada, Ontario and Quebec, are consequently placing the West, the East and the North at an even greater disadvantage. Thus, in this paper, I am going to argue that regionalism is weakening the Canadian state and at its worst, is pulling the country apart. Due to major differences in geography, population and ethnicity, the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s response to Canadian demands differs from region to region. Quebec nationalism is a great example of a distinct regional culture setting back Canadian unity. The historical English vs. French cleavage has been a significant and very influential feature within Canadian politics. Ever since the division of Lower and Upper Canada took place in 1791, French Canadians have been concerned with finding their own independence. This became a principal political issue as English Canadians saw this as a threat to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s national identity and togetherness. Several constitutional reforms have been made in response to Quebec separatism such as the Notwithstanding Clause, allowing the province to maintain its French language, Catholic religion and Civil law. For other provinces, the special status given to Quebec was seen as unjust and resulted in many regional conflicts and complaints. Another distinct regional culture affecting Canadian Politics is well known as Western alienation which is defined as the following: A regionally distinct political culture through and within which are expressed economic discontent, the rejection of a semi-colonial status within the Canadian State, antipathy towards Quebec and French-Canadian influence within the ational government, the irritation of the WestÃ¢â¬â¢s partisan weakness within a succession of Liberal national governments, and the demand from provincial political elites for greater jurisdictional autonomy. For the reason that CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s regional identities are based on conflicting interests and demands from the federal government, Canada is fundamentally made difficult to govern. The disintegration of the Canadian political life is greatly caused by the federal partiality presented in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national political institutions. Criticism of the lack of regional representation in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s federal system has been mainly directed to Parliament and both the electoral and party systems. Effectively, the central governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to increase the role of regions within its political institutions has left the underrepresented provinces of Canada with little to no confidence in their government whatsoever. A major contribution to regional complaints comes from one of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s most unsatisfactory and ineffective national political institutions, the Senate. Established by the British North American Act in 1867, the Canadian Senate was formed as an equivalent to the British House of Lords. 4 Also known as the upper house, the Senate was created as a way of including the representation of under populated provinces into the operation of the federal government. At the time, the Canadian Senate consisted of 72 senators with 24 members appointed from Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes each. As new provinces and territories were added to the federation, they later became a part of the Senate which presently holds a total of 105 seats. Today, Ontario and Quebec have maintained their 24 member senatorial status. The four Western provinces have 6 members each. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick both have 10 seats. Prince Edward Island was given 4 out of the original 24 Maritime senators. Together, Newfoundland and Labrador have a total of 6 members. Finally, Nunavut, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories stand in the equation with 1 senator apiece. Along with the Senate`s original intentions, the principle of equality between the provinces is evidently lost. The Senate primarily fails because it was formerly created to balance out the representation by population which lies in the House of Commons however currently only seems to reinforce it. In fact, CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s central provinces, Ontario and Quebec, account for 60 percent of the seats in the House of Commons and almost half of the seats in the Senate at 46 percent. The inadequacy of regional representation is emphasized as the Canada West Foundation clearly states: Ã¢â¬Å"Canada is the only democratic federal system in the world in which the regions with the largest populations dominate both houses of the national legislature. 6 With an unelected Senate that no longer fulfills its role of equal regional representation and a House of Commons grounded on the representation of provinces proportional to their population, the legitimacy of Parliament has become a great political concern and is a major factor attributing to the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s existing regional tensions. A second political institution adding to the growth of regional grievances is the design of the electoral system. Canadian elections are based on an electoral system most commonly known as the Ã¢â¬Å"first-past-the-postÃ¢â¬ system. This system is constructed in a way where citizens of numerous geographical regions or constituencies are allowed to elect a single candidate as their o wn political party representation. Basically, the candidate with the most votes in a given constituency wins a seat in the House of Commons. However, this type of electoral system raises many questions about whether election outcomes are truly and justly representing party preference on the national scale. The main reason for this criticism relates to the fact that candidates are able to win an election in a constituency regardless of whether they won over 50 percent of the total popular vote. Consequently, the number of seats a party wins in the House of Commons will very unlikely be in proportion with their actual share of the popular vote. Therefore, the system has the tendency to punish minor parties with widespread provincial support while benefiting the leading parties with rather concentrated central support. A great example of the misrepresentation of the electoral system was seen during the 1979 elections when Joe Clark of the Conservative party was elected as Prime Minister, despite the Liberals receiving at least 4 percent more of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s popular vote. 8 Not only is the electoral system a distortion of public opinion, it causes many voters to feel insignificant and uncared for which greatly contributes to the existing low voter turnout and even as to why Canadians are so indifferent about politics altogether. A third way wherein the federal government fails to accommodate regional interests is among the political parties themselves. The party system is an essential aspect of the operation of a democratic government but given that most political parties depend on central Canada for the majority of their votes, the party system has become meaningless and once again regional interests are overshadowed. The lack of a nationwide connection between political parties and Canadian citizens is evident as the party system becomes more and more regionally concentrated. Since the first Canadian elections, the Liberals and the Conservatives have been the most dominant political parties to date. 9 Because Ontario and Quebec are appointed the most seats in the House of Commons, both the Liberal and Conservative parties rely on the votes of the central Canadian population. In doing so, it is impossible for other parties to achieve a majority in the House even if they win the combined seats of Western, Atlantic and Northern Canada. Thus, in 1993 CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s party system became a lot more regionally based. For examples, le Bloc Quebecois only runs candidates in Quebec as its sole purpose is to find Quebec sovereignty and the Reform party based in Alberta was created as a way of expressing how regional alienation is overwhelmingly felt by Western Canadians. All in all, CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national political institutions are far from being representative of Canadian society which results in the devaluation of political activity and is greatly weakening the Canadian state. Historically, support for central CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic development has always been a priority on the political agenda. For the reason that CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national policies are strongly biased towards Ontario and Quebec, economic success is not evenly dispersed throughout the Canadian State. An example wherein central Canada was at an advantage over other provinces was when John A. Macdonald implemented the Ã¢â¬Å"National PolicyÃ¢â¬ in 1879. This policy consisted of the establishment of a transcontinental railway and placed a tariff on imported manufactured goods in order to allow domestic goods to be sold at a lower price. In doing so, U. S. manufacturers invested in the vast exploitation of Western CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resources in which countless jobs and recruiting opportunities were made possible for many Canadians. The purpose of the policy was to help advance the development of the Canadian economy, however while Ontario benefited enormously, the Western and Eastern provinces were placed at a significant disadvantage. Not only did the federal government have jurisdiction over West CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resources, farmers in the Prairies had to buy Canadian agricultural equipment that was at a much higher price than the American agricultural equipment they had bought prior to the policy. This enabled many regional complaints and demands from the West and it was not until 1930 when the Prairie provinces finally gained control of their natural resources. Another example of federal government discrimination is known as the National Energy Program. Introduced in 1980, the NEP was meant to increase federal control and ownership of the oil industry so that Canadians were protected from the negative effects of rising and falling world energy prices. In order to accomplish this goal, price controls and federal taxes on oil and gas production were implemented. However, while CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s consumers and heartland industries benefited from AlbertaÃ¢â¬â¢s energy resources, great opposition from Western Canada was met. Albertans were mainly upset for the reason that the federal government was going against their provincial rights, despite Alberta having control over their resources. This feeling of alienation augmented as oil companies moved toward central Canada, leaving Albertans with a tremendous loss of wealth and a great deal of unemployment. Thus, the abuse and discrimination of Western Canada in was a major factor in fuelling Canadian regionalism. As many Prime Ministers have said, Canada is one of the most difficult countries to govern effectively. 10 Regionalism is continually weakening the Canadian state and at its worst, is pulling the country apart. Politicians must realize that CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s differences in geography, culture and economic demands are a daily fact and will forever influence Canadian politics. In order to restore public confidence in our central government, regional tensions, conflicts and demands must be addressed. A great way in tackling the negative effects of regionalism is by strengthening the role of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s provinces within our national political institutions. Changing the Senate to an elected one where every province is represented by an equal number of senators is a preferable solution in dealing with regional disparities. Thereby, national policies can be made without having the interests of a province over other provinces and important national issues can be dealt with based on the viewpoints of all of Canada and not merely focusing on those of Ontario and Quebec. Moreover, political parties can also play an important role in improving the Canadian political life. 11 In establishing a more mea ningful relationship between political parties and Canadian citizens, people in society can elect a more favourable political leader who can efficiently respond to their personal needs and suggestions. Ultimately, public trust and public involvement within the federal government can be restored. By including a provincial dimension to CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s national political institutions, politicians will have a much better understanding of how significant regional opinion truly is and how regionalism can essentially be changed to strengthen the Canadian state and to re-establish CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s unified identify. References 1. Stephen, Brooks. Canadian Democracy: An Introduction, fifth edition. Canada: Oxford University Press, 2007. 2. Henderson, Ailsa. Regional Political Cultures in Canada. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 37(3), 2004. 3. Kerstetter, Steven. Rags and Riches. Wealth Inequality in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2002. 4. Stilborn, Jack. Senate Reform: Issues and Recent Developments. Ottawa: Parliamentary Information and Research Service, 2008. 5. DÃ¢â¬â¢Aquino, Thomas, G. Bruce Doern, and Cassandra Blair. Parliamentary Democracy in Canada: Issues for Reform. Methuen: Business Council on National Issues, 1983. 6. Canada West Foundation. Regional Representation: The Canadian Partnership. Calgary: The Canada West Foundation, 1981 7. Milner, Henry. First Past the Post? Progress Report on Electoral Reform Initiatives in Canadian Provinces. Institute for Research and Public Policy, 2004. 8. Dyck, Rand. Canadian Politics, fourth edition. Nelson Education, 2008. 9. Savoie, J, Donald. All things Canadian are now regional. Journal of Canadian Studies, 2000. 10. Lewis, J. P. Canadian Government and Politics. Lecture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Mar. 18, 2010. 11. Fox, Graham. Rethinking Political Parties. Public Policy Forum, 2006.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Summary of Readings - Essay Example Regular prayers and devotions were part of the Christian religious processes for the welfare of the faithful and it was this formed the basis of the development of timekeeping technology and its dominance of our current capitalistic societies. It was not that time keeping was not there earlier, but the development of the clock as an expression of new timekeeping technologies removed the vagaries of nature that inhibit regulatory and order in the pervious time keeping technologies. Starting from the fourteenth centuries clock towers emerged in cities and towns to dominate life the life of their citizens (1). Other technologies may have come and may also lay claim to be all pervasive in human civilization, but there is no technology that has pervaded every niche of human presence and dominated the activities of humankind. The orderly punctual existence brought on by the mechanical clock is not in keeping with basic nature of humankind and yet, modern civilization remains a slave to the chimes of the mechanical clock. The regular chimes of mechanical time in seconds and minutes are in disharmony with the irregular nature of the human body, yet in modern civilization, basic human organic functions are controlled by this mechanical time. Humankind lives, works, and exists now in keeping with tunes of the tool of time keeping technology in the form of the time keeping clock (1). Biology in the Evolution of Technology In Chapter 3, History of the Seventh Kingdom in his book Ã¢â¬Å"What Technology WantsÃ¢â¬ , Kevin Kelly 2011, opines that the seventh kingdom of technology is not merely an invention of humankind, but has its origins in life itself, and continues to evolve as living organisms have done so from the time life dawned on planet Earth. The six kingdoms of living organisms have evolved and adapted over several hundred millions of generations in an unbroken link, and also learnt to build and evolve external structures. Structures to live in are the most commo n of these external structures. Such shelters of an animal are extension of the animal itself, and in this manner technology is the extension of humankind. This is visible in all the technologies developed and used by humankind, such as even the clothes that we wear. Technology in essence represents an external repository for human ideas (2). An evaluation of the evolution of human technology demonstrates a number of similarities with the evolution of genetic organisms. The manner in which a particular species of technology evolves over time is very similar to that of genealogical blueprint of species evolution, with the difference that in technology it is the expression of ideas and not the work of genes. Different branches of technology combine to create new products, just as evolution in organisms evolves through mating. Evolution in technology is parallel to evolution of nature. An example of this lies in the transformation of simple alphabets into books, which are the storehous es of human knowledge. This is similar to the transformation of DNA into cells and organisms (2). Yet there are differences too in the manner in which technology differs from living organisms. Organisms can be long-living while many technologies are short-lived. Innovations in organisms are passed down from parent down to the offspring vertically, while innovations in technology